Diabetes and Heart Diseases

Diabetes and Heart Diseases

2022-05-20 09:33:10/ Kategori : Cardiology

Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. When we think of cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, that is, the occlusion of the vessels feeding the heart, heart failure, heart attack, stroke, hypertension, occlusion of the arm and leg vessels, kidney failure in relation to large vessel diseases such as the aorta should come to mind. It is estimated that diabetes, or diabetes, will affect 550 million people around the world in 2030, and half of them will not be aware of their disease. 95% of these are type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that approximately 300 million people will have high fasting blood sugar, impaired glucose tolerance, pregnancy-associated diabetes and euglycemic insulin resistance, which can cause type 2 diabetes. Western-style diets, high-fat diets,

Cardiovascular diseases occur in 65% of patients with diabetes. The rates of heart disease, stroke and death in diabetics are twice that of those without. Data from the Framingham heart study reveal a predisposition to cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Diabetes is recognized as a risk equivalent for coronary heart disease. Even if there is no underlying heart disease, having diabetes directly puts the patient in the high or very high risk group. Risk is defined as the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases within 10 years.

In particular, patients with a diagnosis of diabetes should undergo a cardiovascular examination at least once a year. Diabetes causes narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis) that nourish organs such as the brain, heart and kidney, whose vascular structure is vital for us. This leads to the emergence of conditions such as heart attack, heart failure, stroke and kidney failure.

Chest pain is one of the most important complaints in patients with cardiovascular occlusion. The point we should underline here is that this complaint will be faint in diabetic patients or it will not be felt at all due to the affected nerves. Therefore, routine clinical controls should not be ignored. In addition, if there are complaints such as shortness of breath, palpitations, weakness, decreased exercise capacity, and pain in the legs, especially with exercise, they should immediately undergo a cardiology examination. Conditions such as smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, and high cholesterol increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients, and they should be given special attention.

ECG, echocardiography- heart ultrasound, exercise test, blood pressure Holter examination, CT coronary angiography and conventional angiography are the main evaluation methods used in diabetic patients. In these patients, early diagnosis and treatment approaches are very important before fatal conditions such as heart attack, heart failure and aortic dissection occur.

With blood tests, cholesterol, blood sugar and hidden sugar (HbA1c) levels should be measured and blood pressure levels should be determined. EKG, echocardiography. If vessel narrowing/occlusion is suspected by exercise test or CT angiography, the diagnosis should be made by coronary angiography. After this stage, treatments such as coronary stenting or bypass surgery may be required.

Prevention of obesity, light exercise for 1 hour 5 days a week, salt restriction or medication if high blood pressure is present, aggressive blood sugar control (with diet, medication or insulin), protein instead of saturated fats and carbohydrate-rich diet, moderate carbohydrate (vegetable, It is important to prefer a diet consisting of unsaturated fats, and if high cholesterol is detected, it is important to bring it to the optimal level with diet or medication.

If conditions such as cardiovascular occlusion (coronary artery disease), vascular occlusion feeding the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart failure have occurred, they should be treated with appropriate drugs and interventional methods.

As a result, diabetes is considered the equivalent of vascular disease and progresses insidiously. Fatal atherosclerosis, heart attack, heart failure etc. Detection and treatment of such conditions before they occur play a vital role in reducing the risk of death.


Sources: ACC/AHA clinical practice guidelines

ESC guidelines

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